Navigating India’s Competition Law: A Comprehensive Guide for Businesses

by Smita Paliwal (Partner) and Priyanka Sharma (Associate), King Stubb & Kasiva, India

In today’s fast-paced business landscape, companies are engaged in an intense battle to outshine rivals in their niches. This competition requires a fair competition law to ensure a balanced and orderly market. India has embraced such laws to promote healthy competition, leading to increased compliance. Business rivalry drives innovation but can also turn negative with unethical practices. Striking the right balance between these aspects is crucial for sustained success and a thriving economy.

Types of Business Competition

Business competition can be categorized into three types:

  1. Direct Competition: Businesses offering the same product or service to the same target audience, vying for the same market share.
  2. Indirect Competition: Businesses offering different products or services but addressing the same customer needs.
  3. Replacement Competition: Businesses providing different solutions that replace existing products or services.

Rising brand rivalry and a desire for distinctiveness can have negative implications such as decreased market share, increased pressure on firms (particularly startups and small businesses), work-related stress, and mismanagement. Healthy competition, on the other hand, provides benefits such as improved productivity, increased innovation, better management, and superior customer service.

Introduction to Competition Law

The goal of competition law is to keep markets balanced and to prevent unfair trade practices that damage competition. It protects against abusive dominance and cartel formation, guaranteeing a level playing field for all market participants. To foster and preserve healthy competition, India, like other countries, has developed its own Competition Law.

The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 marked the beginning of India’s competition law path. Recognizing the need for a more dynamic approach, the government repealed it in 2002 and replaced it with the Competition Act, 2002. The purpose of this new law was to counter monopolistic and restrictive trade practices in many sectors of the Indian economy.

Principles of Competition Law in India

The Competition Law in India is designed to achieve several purposes, including preventing anticompetitive practices, promoting and maintaining market competition, protecting consumer interests, and ensuring freedom of trade for all participants. The law encompasses various elements to achieve these goals effectively:

  1. Anti-competitive Agreements: The Act prohibits agreements that may cause an “appreciable adverse impact” on competition. These agreements include price-fixing, production limitations, market-sharing arrangements, bid rigging, and other collusive practices.
  2. Abuse of Dominance: Enterprises in a dominant position are prohibited from engaging in practices that are unfair or discriminatory, such as imposing unfavourable conditions on sale or procurement, denying market access, or using dominance in one market to impact another.
  3. Merger, Amalgamation, and Acquisition Control: Combinations that could negatively affect competition within the relevant Indian market must be notified to the Competition Commission of India (“CCI”) for approval.
  4. Competition Advocacy: The law provides for collaboration between the government and the CCI to promote competition, influence economic behaviour, and raise awareness of fair competition practices.

Importance of Competition Law

The Competition Act is instrumental in ensuring that firms engage in effective competition, leading to various advantages. This legislation promotes entrepreneurship and productivity while offering consumers lower prices, increased choices, and improved product quality. In a competitive market, firms are compelled to innovate, leading to the development of high-quality goods and services. Moreover, the Act encourages differentiation among products, providing consumers with diverse options that suit their preferences and needs. The resulting affordability and accessibility of goods stimulate demand and foster economic growth. By upholding fair competition, the Act creates a dynamic market environment, benefiting consumers, businesses, and the economy as a whole.

Furthermore, the essence of competition law is to provide an egalitarian climate in which startups can compete and thrive without fear of unfair competition or monopolistic action by larger firms. This regulatory framework serves as a protection against behaviours that could impede innovation and limit startup market access. Competition law encourages entrepreneurs to prosper based on the merits of their offers by defending principles that prevent anti-competitive acts such as collusion, price fixing, and abuse of market dominance. The role of competition law in cultivating a climate of credibility and confidence is key to its significance. Startups frequently have few resources, and the certainty of fair competition allows them to focus their efforts and resources on growth and development rather than predatory actions.

As a result, investments are attracted, entrepreneurial ventures are encouraged, and economic progress is fueled. Furthermore, the symbiotic relationship between competition legislation and innovation stimulation should not be neglected. By limiting the concentration of power among a few established firms, competition law creates a level playing field in which startups’ inventiveness can flourish. Startups contribute not just to their personal growth but also to the broader advancement of sectors and economies by accepting fresh ideas and altering industries.

The Competition Amendment Act, 2023

The Competition (Amendment) Act, 2023 marks a sea change in the country’s competition regulatory landscape. This amendment offers critical reforms to strengthen competition regulation, foster a business-friendly environment, and improve operational efficiency. It provides the following:

  1. It introduces a new deal value threshold of INR 2,000 Cr for acquisitions, mergers, or amalgamations involving firms with significant Indian operations, hence widening the scope of CCI assessment.
  2. It introduces a revised definition of “control.” This now includes “material influence,” which clarifies influential roles inside firms.
  3. It streamlines processes by shortening the implementation timetable for combinations, allowing firms to plan ahead of time.
  4. It finds a balance between transaction flexibility and regulatory control, allowing the stock exchange to execute open offers and acquire shares, prior to CCI approval while restricting ownership rights until clearance.
  5. Furthermore, the addition of a three-year limitation period for claimed violations assures enforcement and a dispute resolution mechanism expedites issue resolution for businesses.

With measures geared at startups forming alliances, the amendment aligns India’s competition law with global best practices, establishing the groundwork for transparent and effective competition regulation.


The Competition Act is a sweeping and forward-looking piece of legislation, crafted to meet the demands of a growing economy and align with global trends in competition law. Enacted in 2002, this landmark law has been hailed as historic for its comprehensive approach to preventing the abuse of power within the market. One of its primary objectives is to foster healthy competition, while simultaneously ensuring that businesses of all sizes can thrive by facilitating a fair distribution of income. Although the Act is still in the process of full implementation, its eventual adoption promises to elevate market competitiveness both within the nation and on the global stage.